А. Л. Стремовская


The main characteristics of the Japanese negotiating style are reviewed in the article. They include seeking harmony and preserving face, avoidance of direct communication and interpersonal confrontation, significant role of back-stage communication, necessity of reaching consensus before taking further steps, possibility to discuss the terms of the contract after it has been signed, holistic approach to considering the issues during negotiation and readiness to make concessions only at the end of negotiation. Forms of integrative and soft competition strategies determined by Song and Hale are analysed. It is stated that according to Song and Hale use of integrative strategy is possible when both parties are willing to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement. However, use of soft competition strategy is acceptable in the case when one party is interested in resolving the problem and establishing/preserving good relations with another party while the other party’s aim is only to resolve the problem. In addition, effective American tactics applied in negotiations with the Japanese are listed according to D. Hendon, R. Hendon and P. Herbig. The author concludes that the concept of saving face, inclination towards indirect communication, avoidance of the aggressive tactics, orientation towards integrative negotiations and seeking harmony are the most significant determinants of the Japanese negotiating behavior.


negotiation; the Japanese; integrative strategy; ‘soft competition’ strategy; concept of saving face


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