А. М. Арефьев, И. И. Романенко


Russia as one of the countries where social conflicts are currently manifested most convincingly. The entire Russian society has been penetrated with variable conflicts during the post-Soviet era. Diversified collisions started to develop at all levels — interethnic, intergroup and interindividual. They took on most acute forms, including armed conflicts leading to numerous human losses. Those conditions caused a pressing need for elaboration of national conflict resolution studies as an independent branch of scientific knowledge. That process had become most active since beginning of 90-ies. The specificity of social conflict in contemporary Russia may include a tradition to explain social conflict through objective contradictions in the interests of big social groups which dictate logic, duration, sharpness of the struggle for satisfaction of critical needs to the conflict parties. Almost all social conflicts in Russia have their causality with a flavor of national culture, as well as social-political history of our country. Social conflicts in Russia are mostly emotional and occur with a vivid expression of aggression which sometimes turns to violence. The history of development of our country positively shows that the most important conflicts between individuals and social groups are concentrated in the political sphere. The political conflicts broke out in 1991. The collapse of the USSR, sudden, not-prepared and painful change of the way of life, economy and ideology plunges the already former soviet society into shock. The post-soviet Russia which had lost its steady foot in the form of politics of the USSR leaders and communist order was thrown into the world of chaos, social problems and crisis, interethnic divisions, gross class inequalities and non-stable economy being in-transit to capitalism. The Marxist and non-Marxist sociologists hold by an opinion that a conflict is just a temporary state of the society which can be overcome through reasonable means and hence there is possibility to reach the level of social development when social conflicts disappear. The majority of non-Marxist sociologists tend to believe that a non-conflict existence of a society is impossible. They support an old philosophical tradition according to which a conflict is an integral part of being and a main drive for development. This means that a conflict is not a dysfunction, not an abnormality but a norm of relationship between people, a necessary element of life which blows off social tensions, energy of activity, gives rise to social changes of different scale. Those specificities and nuances are reflected in this article aimed to reveal specificity of development of the theory of conflicts as a social phenomenon of the Russian society.


conflicts; theory of conflicts; social phenomenon; system analysis; system approach; system principle


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