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E. I. Naumova, A. V. Makarin


this article is about the conflict between such phenomenons as the fascist morality and thinking. The fascist morality is the distinctive feature of the totalitarian regimes, it based on the capitalist rationality. The origins of the capitalist rationality are connected with two processes: the extinction of the antique division into public and private sphere and the expropriation of the property. In antique time the property was the private space of the person, the place of his birth and death. The expropriation happened with the Reformation that, firstly, lead to the destruction of the dichotomy public/private and, secondly, laid foundation for the capitalism. The social space destroyed the public/private sphere and the social possession of the things emerged instead of the private property. The man alienated of the world and earth and it means the transition from the modus «taking care of ourselves» to the regime of production. The «mass» person, atomized and lonely, appeared with the classless society, imperialistic tendencies and totalitarian movements in the Modern Time. Imperialism is the phenomenon of the global tendencies of the expansion of the capital in connection with the totalitarian movements. The imposition of totalitarianism and its intellectual consequences find the description in the private Eichmann case which demonstrates that the person lose the main thing — the ability of thinking — in the frame of totalitarian system. Cognition with its pragmatic aspect become the basis of the New European/capitalist rationality in contrary to the thinking. The capitalist rationality is «thinking» by to the rules. The conception of the banality of evil opened through this phenomenon: people support the criminal regime because of the habit to live by the rules. If the rules change, the person submit to this rules by inertia. Totalitarian system break of the habit to live one’s mind, in particular, make own judgment about the world. The basis of the fascist morality is that the person ready to kill another, carrying out the criminal order, and reject to bear the personal responsibility for his actions. The maxim of the fascist morality is such: of two evils choose the lesser.


the banality of evil; fascism; morality; thinking; capitalism; property; imperialism; totalitarianism; H. Arendt


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