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Evolutionary, Social and Psychological Nature of the Conflict: L. Gumplowicz and K. Lorenz

E. S. Cherepanova

Abstract


The paper examines the theoretical approaches of Ludwig Gumplowicz and Konrad Lorenz to analysis of social conflict. The comparison of their views elicits conceptual similarity of both theories: the resemblance becomes evident when the author places a special focus on such issues as the interpretation of war reason and the possibility of peace. The main thesis which is proved by Gumplowicz is that the appearance of humankind must be explained in connection with the latest inventions in different academic fields like biology, ethnology and sociology. It is the way that gives a possibility to avoid metaphysical interpretations and to approach to genuine roots of modern conflicts ― both group and national. Lorenz believes that aggression as a basic instinct follows to explanation of the genesis of human and animal ritualized behavior patterns. Blocking mechanisms of aggression had been formed during the evolution in purpose of avoiding consequences of intraspecific competition. In cultures of different nations there are also rituals which are dealing with inhibition and canalization of aggression. Due to this fact world of human culture also has evolutionary patterns of ritualized behavior in its origin. Besides this Lorenz considers that aggression must be taken into account when a conflict is analyzed as a psychological phenomenon. Both Lorenz and Gumplowicz stand on naturalistic positions of understanding of human nature and strongly believe in the inherent human belligerence. Thus, they explain the diversification of cultural and historical landscape and the nature of social institutions like morality, law and state.

Keywords


social conflict; Gumplowicz' understanding of the cause of war; aggression and war by Lorenz; belligerence and aggressiveness; antimetaphysical guideline for the explanation of conflict; criticism of ideology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31312/2310-6085-2018-13-3-85-95

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