RUSSIAN PROJECT OF “CAPITALISM”

Е. И. Наумова, В. Г. Бондарев

Abstract


Traditionally, capitalism as a phenomenon is comprehended in the frame of two approaches: civilizational and word-system. The research of capitalism, represented in the article, based on the conceptual history methodology that allows to reconstruct discursive history of “capitalism”. This methodology open the opportunity to discover “Russian routs” in the history of the emergence of the concept capitalism, furthermore, to propose the opinion that “capitalism” is Russian project. Starting point is that Marx never used the concept capitalism. “Capitalism” literally “grow” from the translation of the Marx’s “Capital” into Russian language and the discussions around it which were initiated by members of the “Narodnaya Volya” (People’s Freedom), Slavophiles and Marxists. It happened long before the emergency of Weber’s and Sombart’s works which give precedence in popularization of the concept capitalism. Key thesis of the research is that Russian politicians, philosophers and writes laid the Russian-language foundation of the Marxist and Liberal methodology of capitalism understanding. They “forged” from the Marx’s “Capital” the concept capitalism, wrote its meaning and content in the Marxist (Russian Marxists) and Liberal (Liberal members of the “People’s Freedom”) terms that’s why Marxist and partly Liberal understanding of capitalism is Russian. It is disclosed that the theory of the Slavophiles formed the special “Spirit” of capitalism as the Western Evil image that attached the negative “charge” the concept capitalism. Our research showed that the concept capitalism became commonly-used in Russian political literature and also emerged and took root in Russian vocabulary before that it happened in Europe countries (The member of “People’s Freedom” and later Socialist Revolutionary S. N. Rusanov is the first who started popularization of the concept capitalism in the print media). It is likely that the translation of the concept capitalism into the other European languages based on the Russian original of the Marxist concept of capitalism and with this meaning and content it entered into the Western vocabularies. It means that the basis of the Marxist and partly Liberal understanding of capitalism for the European world based on Russian way.

Keywords


capitalism; conceptual history; Russia; Russian; the members of the “Narodnaya Volya” (People’s Freedom); Slavophiles; Marxists; N. S. Rusanov; N. F. Danielson; G. A. Lopatin; «Capital»; Marx; Engels; Russian revolutionaries; Marxism

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31312/2310-6085-2021-16-4-55-68

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