Е. И. Наумова, В. Г. Бондарев


The article is about the problem of the bourgeois civilization birth through the problematization of the concept of debt. It is generally agreed (A. Smith, D. Ricardo) that the commerce economics arise as a result of the natural people’s propensity to the exchange which become monetary over time. This article represents alternative approach to the question of the capitalism, money and bourgeois civilization origin.
The idea about the birth of capitalist relationships from the debt builds and opens in the works of American anthropologist D. Graeber based on the F. Nietzsche, M. Mauss, Deleuze G., Guattari F. theories. Bourgeois civilization represents as the result of the global historical development through the prism of debt transformation.
Development of the bourgeois civilization connected with the transformation from the «human economics», when debt is conceived in moral terms, to «monetary economics» when debt gets numeric terms. It is described the process of the transformation of debt understanding from finite to infinite and it is presented the influence of this factor on the way of capitalism function and human life organization. The emergence of capitalism and bourgeois civilization is conceived in terms of linear development (not crisis) through the debt optics. Debt is the line striving in infinite or constantly delayed limit/collapse of capitalism. The idea of cyclical (crisis) development of capitalism is complemented by the idea of its linear (debt) development that push the envelope of consideration and assessment of bourgeois civilization in the frame of contemporary approach.


debt; capitalism; bourgeois civilization; M. Mauss; F. Nietzsche; G. Deleuze; F. Guattari; D. Graeber


Смитт А. Исследования о природе и богатстве народов. М.: Книга на все времена, 2010. 160 с.

Smith A. The Wealth of Nations, Moscow, 2010. 160 p. (In Russ.)

Гребер Д. Долг: Первые 5000 лет истории. М.: Ад Маргинем Пресс, 2015. 528 c.

Graeber D. Debt: The First 5000 Years, Moscow, Ad Marginem Press, 2015. 528 p. (In Russ.)

Ницше Ф. Генеалогия морали. М.: Азбука. 2014. 224 с.

Nietzsche F. On the Genealogy of Morals, Moscow, Azbuka, 2014. 224 p. (In Russ.)

Мосс М. Общество. Обмен. Личность. Труды по социальной антропологии. М.: КДУ. 2011. 416 с.

Mauss M. Society. Exchange. Personality. Works on social anthropology, Moscow, KDY, 2011. 416 p. (In Russ.)

Хархордин О.В. Куда идет теория практик: поворот к материальности // Социологические исследования. 2012, № 11: 20–34.

Kharkhordin O.V. “What is the way of the theory of practices: The Pragmatic Turn”, Sociological research, 2012, no. 11: 20–34. (In Russ.)

Наумова Е.И. Капитализм и культура. Философский взгляд. СПб: Фонд Развития конфликтологии, 2015. 232 c.

Naumova E.I. Capitalism and culture. Philosophical view, St. Petersburg, 2015. 232 p. (In Russ.)

Делёз Ж., Гваттари Ф. Анти-Эдип: Капитализм и шизофрения. Екатеринбург: У-Фактория, 2007. 672 с.

Deleuze G., Guattari F. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Yekaterinburg, U-Factoria, 2007. 672 p. (In Russ.)

Маркс К. Капитал. Критика политической экономики. Т. 1. М.: Гос. изд-во полит. литературы, 1952. 797 с.

Marx K. Capital: A critique of Political Economy, Vol. 1, Moscow, 1952. 797 p. (In Russ.)

Berardi F. The Uprising. On poetry and capitalism, Los Angeles, Semiotext (e), 2012. 176 p.



  • There are currently no refbacks.